Paroemiographia

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Paroemiographia (a Graeco παροιμία 'proverbium, praeceptum, sententia"[1] + γράφω 'scribere, inscribere'[2]) est investigatio proverbiorum conlectorum et scriptorum, pars paroemiologiae, investigationis proverbiorum.

Multa proverbia typis descripta divulgata sunt, quae inter antiquas Imperii Accadii tabellis argillaceis et situs interretiales variantur. Divulgata proverbium congeries variis modis componuntur. Nonnullae tantum sunt indices ordine alphabetico ordinati, aliae autem re digeruntur (e.g., ignavia, observantia in maiores), aliaeque vocabulo magni momenti ordinantur (e.g., canis, pluvia). Nonnullae ex singulis linguis veniunt (e.g., lingua Russica), aliae autem sunt multilinguales sed ex singula civitate veniunt (e.g., Nigeria), aliaeque sunt congreies ex toto orbe terrarum. Nonnullae quidem sunt congeries contraproverbiorum pro proverbiis iustioribus (Reznikov 2009). Nonnullae proverbia et dicta certam structuram habentia congesserunt, sicut wellerismi (Mieder et Kingsbury). Nonnullae sunt mixturae horum generum, sicut proverbia de mulieribus ex toto orbe terrarum compositae (Schipper 2003). Quotannis, periodicum Proverbium indicem congerierum proverbiorum omnem per orbem terrarum conlectorum, vel nuper editorum vel nuper inventorum, continet.[3]

Conlectio proverbiorum in linguis quibus est hereditas in litteris plerumque efficitur per exempla in litteris exstantibus quaesita. Congeries proverbiorum in multis linguis quibus iam dudum sunt memoriae litteratae prolata sunt, inter quae Graeca, Latina, Russica, Francica, Theodisca, Graeca, Mandarinica. Praeterea sunt congeries prolatae ex linguis quae diuturna memoria scripta carent, sicut linguae Temne, Oromo, Bambara, Bassa.

Notissima proverbiorum congeries divulgata est Adagia Latina, ab Erasmo composita, plerumque ex litteris antiquis. Cum Europaei proverbia quae ea continebat legerent, ei saepe in suis linguis converterunt, ea trans continentem spargentes. Hic est fons multorum proverbiorum hodiernorum, inter quae "In regione caecorum, luscus est rex."[4]

Nonnulli postulaverunt conlectionem proverbiorum linguarum non iam perscriptarum, praecipue linguarum periclitatarum (Himmelmann 1998)—pars laboris documentationis linguae. Cum autem investigatores proverbia conligunt in linguis quae historia litterata carent, eis necesse est rationibus utere quae a rationibus in linguis quibus est hereditas scripta differunt, ut a Yankah (1989), Unseth (2008), et Tadesse Jaleta Jirata (2009) descriptae sunt.

Collectio proverbiorum ab hominibus qui qualibet lingua utuntur optime in regione ubi lingua obtinet fit; proverbia autem in communibus emigratorum conlecta sunt, sicut in commune locutorum linguae Georgianae in israel.[5]

Multae congeries praecurrentes ab opificibus Christianis conlecta et edita sunt, ambo intra communia unius linguae, sicut Aster Ganno Aethiopiae, et extra ea.[6][7][8][9] Typis continenter describitur continua proverborum ex parvis linguis Africae Orientalis conlectorum series sub aegide Iosephi Graham Healey, in papyro et in interreti edita.[10]

Proverbia autem conligenda et perscribenda, etiam in linguis quibus est historia litterata, numquam fit omnino, quia nova proverbia semper gignuntur, et vetera proverbia in desuetudinem cadunt. old ones fall into disuse. Nulla congeries est vel penitus perfecta vel ad tempus (Taylor 1969). Maior conatus ad emendandam perscriptionem recentiorum proverbiorum Anglicorum est The Dictionary of Modern Proverbs, quod continet solum proverbia recentia, sicut (Anglice) "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" et "Stop and smell the roses."[11]

Nonnulli eruditi proverbia a singulis auctoribus vel locutoribus adhibita, inter quos Chaucer, Martinus Luther (Cornette 1997), Abrahamus Lincoln (Mieder 2000), et Agatha Christie (Bryan 1993), perscribunt. Maior index conlectionum proverbium orbis terrarum divulgata est International Bibliography of Paremiography (Bibliographia Paroemiographiae Gentium) (Mieder 2011).

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. παροιμία, Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Perseus.
  2. γράφω, Henry George Liddell et Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in Perseus.
  3. Nancy Mason Bradbury (2002), "Transforming Experience into Tradition: Two Theories of Proverb Use and Chaucer’s Practice," Oral Tradition 17(2():261-289, vide p. 262, notam 2.
  4. Communis in multis linguis hodiernis; exempli gratia, Anglice 'In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king'.
  5. Galit Hasan-Rokem (1994), "Georgian proverbs of dialogue and dialogue of proverbs in Israel," Proverbium 11:103-116.
  6. Johann Christaller (1879), Twi mmebusem, mpensã-ahansĩa mmoaano: A collection of three thousand and six hundred Tshi proverbs, in use among the Negroes of the Gold coast speaking the lingua Asante et Fante, collected, together with their variations, and alphabetically arranged (Basiliae: The Basel German Evangelical Missionary Society).
  7. Charles Bailleul (2005), Sagesse Bambara - Proverbes et sentences (Bamako, Mali: Editions Donniya).
  8. William F. Johnson (1892), Hindi Arrows for the Preacher's Bow (Dharma Dowali) (Allahabad, India: Christian Literature Society).
  9. Herman Jensen (1897), A classified collection of Tamil proverbs (Madras: Methodist Episcopal Publishing House; Londinii: Trübner).
  10. Situs publicus, www.afriprov.org
  11. Charles Clay Doyle, Wolfgang Mieder, et Fred Shapiro (2012), The Dictionary of Modern Proverbs (Portu Novi: Yale University Press).

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bryan, George B. 1993. Black Sheep, Red Herrings, and Blue Murder: The Proverbial Agatha Christie. Peter Lang.
  • Cornette, James C., Jr. 1997. Proverbs and Proverbial Expressions in the German Works of Martin Luther, ed. Wolfgang Mieder et Dorothee Racett. Sprichwörterforschung, vol. 1. Peter Lang.
  • Himmelmann, Nikolaus. 1998. Documentary and descriptive linguistics. Linguistics 36:161–195.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2000. The Proverbial Abraham Lincoln. Peter Lang.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2011. International Bibliography of Paremiography. Supplementalis series periodici Proverbii, 34. Burlington Montis Viridis: Universitas Montis Viridis.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang, et Stewart Kingsbury, eds. 1994. A Dictionary of Wellerisms. Oxoniae: Oxford University Press.
  • Reznikov, Andrey. 2009. Old wine in new bottles: Modern Russian anti-proverbs. Supplementalis series periodici Proverbii, 27. Burlingtoniae: Universitas Montis Viridis.
  • Tadesse Jaleta Jirata. 2009. A contextual study of the social functions of Guji-Oromo proverbs. Saabruecken: DVM Verlag.
  • Schipper, Mineke. 2003. Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet: Women in Proverbs from around the World. Portu Novo: Yale University Press.
  • Taylor, Archer. 1969. How nearly complete are the collections of proverbs? Proverbium 14:369–371.
  • Unseth, Peter. 2008. How to collect 1,000 proverbs quickly: field methods for collecting proverbs. Proverbium 25:399–418.
  • Yankah, Kwesi. 1989. Proverbs: Problems and Strategies in Field Research. Proverbium 6:165–176.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]