Parmenides

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Parmenides, in Raphaelis "Schola Athenarum"

Parmenides (Graece: Παρμενίδης ; Eleate natus circa 550; mortuus circa 450 a.C.n.) fuit philosophus et poëta Graecus, qui scholam Eleaticam philosophiae condidit. Operum suorum, solum opus notum est poema De Natura, quod tantum fragmentis superest. Hoc in poemate, Parmenides duas realitatis notiones describit: "quod est, id non ens est" et "ex nihilo nihil fit." Atque adfirmavit essentiam sine tempore, ex una forma, et aeternum esse.

De natura[recensere | fontem recensere]

Equi quibus vehor, et qui quo animi impetus ferretur,
Me deduxerunt, postquam in celebrem me vexerunt viam
Deae quae ipsa per omnia ducit doctum virum,
Hac ferebar, namque hac me sollertes portabant equi
Currum agentes ; nymphae autem itineris erant duces,
Heliades nymphae, noctis domo relicta,
Ad lucem, velaminibus a capite remotis.
Axis autem in modiolis ciebat fistulae stridorem
Fervens, binis enim agitabatur tornatis
Rotis utrimque, quotiescumque majore impetu vehere festinarent.
Illic est porta noctis et lucis viarum,
Quam supra hyperthyrum, infra limen lapideum continet ;
Ipsa autem aethere clauditur ingentibus valvis,
Quarum vindex Justitia tenet reciprocas claves.
Hanc igitur nymphae blandis verbis precatae
Scite induxerunt, ut sibi vectem ferrea glande munitum
Confestim amoveret a foribus; illae aperto ostio
Vastum valvarum hiatum fecerunt, aeratos
In fistulis cardines retrorsum convertentes
Nexos clavis et fibulis; qua ratione par eam
Cito rexerunt nymphae lato tramite currum et equos.
Ac dea me propitia excepit, dextraque dextram
Prehendit, atque his me verbis affata est :
O puer, divinis comitate aurigis,
Equis qui te vehunt ad nostram domum adveniens,
Salve, siquidem non mala te fors induxit ad ingrediendam
Hanc viam, nam longe a trita mortalium semita distat,
Sed justitiae veritatisque amor.

(Fragmenta vertit Fr.? Guilelmo Augusto Mullachio anno 1860.)

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Austin, Scott. 1986. Parmenides: Being, Bounds and Logic. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300035594.
  • Austin, Scott. 2007. Parmenides and the History of Dialectic: Three Essays. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-19-3.
  • Bakalis, Nikolaos. 2005. Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4120-4843-5.
  • Barnes, Jonathan. 1978. The Presocratic Philosophers. 2 voll. Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Burnet, J. 2003. Early Greek Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing.
  • Čapek, Milič. 1991. The New Aspects of Time. Kluwer.
  • Cordero, Nestor-Luis. 2004. By Being, It Is: The Thesis of Parmenides. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-03-2.
  • Coxon, A. H.. 1986. The Fragments of Parmenides. Van Gorcum.
  • Coxon A. H. 1986, 2009. The Fragments of Parmenides: A Critical Text With Introduction and Translation, the Ancient Testimonia and a Commentary. Las Vegas: Parmenides Publishing.
  • Curd, Patricia. 1998, 2004. The Legacy of Parmenides: Eleatic Monism and Later Presocratic Thought. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-15-5.
  • Gallop, David. 1991. Parmenides of Elea: Fragments. University of Toronto Press.
  • Guthrie, W. K. C. 1979. A History of Greek Philosophy: The Presocratic tradition from Parmenides to Democritus. Cambridge University Press.
  • Heidegger, Martin. 1992. Parmenides. Liber conversus Andre Schuwer et Richard Rojcewicz. Indiana University Press.
  • Hermann, Arnold. 2005. The Illustrated To Think Like God: Pythagoras and Parmenides-The Origins of Philosophy. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-17-9.
  • Hermann, Arnold. 2005. To Think Like God: Pythagoras and Parmenides-The Origins of Philosophy. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-00-1.
  • Hermann, Arnold. 2010. Plato's Parmenides: Text, Translation & Introductory Essay. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-71-1.
  • Kingsley, Peter (2001). In the Dark Places of Wisdom. Duckworth and Co 
  • Kirk G. S., Raven J. E, et M. Schofield. 1983. The Presocratic Philosophers. Ed. 2a. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hyman, Anthony. 2007. The Selfseeker. Teignvalley Press.
  • Lünstroth, Margarete.l 2006. Teilhaben und Erleiden in Platons Parmenides: Untersuchungen zum Gebrauch von μετέχειν und πάσχειν. Vertumnus vol. 6. Göttingen: Edition Ruprecht. ISBN 978-3-7675-3080-5.
  • Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-19-517510-7 
  • Mourelatos, Alexander P. D. 1970, 2007. The Route of Parmenides: A Study of Word, Image, and Argument in the Fragments. Parmenides Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-11-7.
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. Regnery Gateway. ISBN 0-89526-944-9.
  • Popper, Karl R. (1998). The World of Parmenides. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-17301-9 
  • Ryle, Gilbert. 1939. Plato's Parmenides. Mind 48: 129-151, 303-325.
  • Suhr, Martin. 1969. Platons Kritik an den Eleaten: Vorschläge zur Interpretation des platonischen Dialogs ‚Parmenides.‘ Hamburg.
  • Zekl, Hans Günter. 1971. Der Parmenides. Marburg/Lahn: N. G. Elwert Verlag.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Philosophi ante Socratem

Milesii : Thales Milesius · Anaximander · Anaximenes

Pythagorei : Pythagoras · Alcmaeon · Philolaüs · Archytas · Timaeus Locrus

Ephesius : Heraclitus — Eleatae : Xenophanes · Parmenides · Zeno Eleates · Melissus

Pluralistae : Anaxagoras · Empedocles — Atomistae : Leucippus · Democritus

Sophistae : Protagoras · Prodicus · Gorgias · Hippias · Critias · Antiphon

Diogenes Apolloniates

Vide etiam : Septem sapientium convivium · Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker

David's face Haec stipula ad biographiam spectat. Amplifica, si potes!

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