Musica electronica

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Telharmonium, a Thaddeo Cahill anno 1897 excogitatum.
Halim El-Dabh, primus musicae taeniarum electroacusticae compositor, in pompa Cleveland in urbe anno 2009 ambulat.

Musica electronica est musica quae instrumenta musica electronica et technologiam musicam electronicam in eius productione adhibet. Distinctio inter sonum ratione electromechanica effecta et sonum technologia electronica effecta ad summam fieri potest.[1] Inter exempla machinarum quae sonum electromechanicum generant sunt telharmonium, organum Hammond, et cithara electrica. Generatio sonorum prorsus electronicorum ex machinis sicut theremin, synthesizator sonorum, et computatrum obtineri potest.[2]

Musica electronica olim cum musica artificiosa Occidentali paene omnino propria consociata est, sed a decennio 197 exeunte, technologiam musicam bene emere significavit musicam ratione electronica generatam magis et magis usitatam in dominio musicae popularis factam esse.[3] Hodie, musica electronica multas comprehendit varietates et genera, a musica artificiosa experimentorum ad genera popularia sicut musica saltationis electronica.

Origines: saeculo 19 exeunte ad saeculum 20 ineuns[recensere | fontem recensere]

Facultas sonorum perscribendorum cum productione musicae electronicae saepe sed non necessarie conectitur. Prima machina sonorum perscribendorum nota fuit phonautographum, anno 1857 ab Eduardo Leone Scott de Martinville in tabulas diplomatum relatum. Sonos oculis capere, sed canere non poterat.[4]

Thomas Edison phonographum anno 1878 in tabulas diplomatum rettulit, quod cylindris machinae Raymundi Scott similes usum est. Quamquam cylindri diu in usu erant, Aemilius Berliner discophonum anno 1887 evolvit.[5] Inventum grave, quod deinde musicam electronicam penitus adfecit, fuit tubus audion, a Lee DeForest excogitatus. Hic fuit primus tubus vacuus (accuratius, epistomium thermionicum), anno 1906 effectus, qui ad generationen et amplificationem signorum electricorum, emissionum radiophonicarum, computationis electronicae, et aliarum rerum conduxit. Ante musicam electronicam inventam, compositores magis et magis desiderabant technologiis emergentibus in musica uti. Nonnulla instrumenta facta sunt quae designationes electromechanicas adhibebant atque vicissim facultatem aliorum instrumentorum electronicorum fecit.

Karlheinz Stockhausen in Electronic Music Studio stationis WDR, Coloniae Agrippinae, anno 1991.
Iosephus Tal, compositor Israeliticus, in Electronic Music Studio Hierosolymate (circa 1965). Dextra, synthesizator sonorum Special Purpose Tape Recorder, a Hugh Le Caine excogitatus.
Keith Emerson Petropole anno 2008 perfungitur.
Qlimax, magna musicae electroniae res quae in Nederlandia quotannis fit, hardstyle musicae electronicae subgenus celebrans.
Musicus adligatoribus comprimentibus "flexus" scrutatur.

Telharmonium, fortasse primum instrumentum electromechanicum (aliquando teleharmonium et dynamophone etiam dictum) a Thaddeo Cahill annos 18981912 evolutum est; simplex autem incommodum prosperitatem telharmonii impediebat, ob eius magnitudinem immensam. Primum instrumentum electronicum saepe putatur theremin, a Professore Leone Theremin circa 19191920 excogitatum.[6] Inter alia instrumenta electronica temporum primorum sunt crux canorus (Francice croix sonore), a Nicolao Obukhov anno 1926 excogitatus, et undae musicae (Francice ondes musicales, ondes Martenot), in Symphonia Turangalîla aliisque Olivarii Messiaen operibus insignissime adhibitus. Alii compositores, plerumque Francici, inter quos Andreas Jolivet, undis musicis etiam usi sunt.[7]

Genera[recensere | fontem recensere]

Saepe musica electronica et musica technica exaequantur, sed haec solum partem musicae electronicae. Interea species plurimae sunt; hae sunt maximae et vulgatissimae:

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. "The stuff of electronic music is electrically produced or modified sounds. . . . Two basic definitions will help put some of the historical discussion in its place: purely electronic music versus electroacoustic music" (Holmes 2002, p. 6).
  2. "Electroacoustic music uses electronics to modify sounds from the natural world. The entire spectrum of worldly sounds provides the source material for this music. This is the domain of microphones, tape recorders and digital samplers . . . can be associated with live or recorded music. During live performances, natural sounds are modified in real time using electronics. The source of the sound can be anything from ambient noise to live musicians playing conventional instruments" (Holmes 2002, p. 8).
  3. "Electronically produced music is part of the mainstream of popular culture. Musical concepts that were once considered radical—the use of environmental sounds, ambient music, turntable music, digital sampling, computer music, the electronic modification of acoustic sounds, and music made from fragments of speech-have now been subsumed by many kinds of popular music. Record store genres including new age, rap, hip-hop, electronica, techno, jazz, and popular song all rely heavily on production values and techniques that originated with classic electronic music" (Holmes 2002, p. 1). "By the 1990s, electronic music had penetrated every corner of musical life. It extended from ethereal sound-waves played by esoteric experimenters to the thumping syncopation that accompanies every pop record" (Lebrecht 1996, p. 106).
  4. Rosen 2008.
  5. Russcol 1972, p. 67.
  6. Anonymous 2001.
  7. Orton & Davies n.d.

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Bibliographia addita[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bogdanov, Vladimir (2001), Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine, et John Bush, ed., The All Music Guide to Electronica: The Definitive Guide to Electronic Music, AMG Allmusic Series, San Francisco: Backbeat Books, ISBN 0879306289
       
  • Cummins, James (2008), Ambrosia: About a Culture: An Investigation of Electronica Music and Party Culture, Toronto Ontarii: Clark-Nova Books, ISBN 978-0978489212
       
  • Heifetz, Robin J., ed. (1989), On The Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music, Cranbury Novae Caesareae: Associated University Presses, ISBN 0838751555
       
  • Kahn, Douglas (1999), Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts, Cambridge Massachusettae: MIT Press, ISBN 0262112434
       
  • Kettlewell, Ben (2001), Electronic Music Pioneers, [N.p.]: Course Technology, Inc., ISBN 1931140170
       
  • Licata, Thomas, ed. (2002), Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives, Westport Connecticutae: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313314209
       
  • Manning, Peter (2004), Electronic and Computer Music (Revised and expanded ed.), Oxoniae et Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195144848
       
  • Prendergast, Mark (2001), The Ambient Century: From Mahler to Trance: The Evolution of Sound in the Electronic Age, Forward [sic] by Brian Eno., Novi Eboraci: Bloomsbury, ISBN 0747542139
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  • Reynolds, Simon (1998), Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture, Londinii: Pan Macmillan, ISBN 0330350560
        (US title,  Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture, Bostoniae: Little, Brown, 1998 ISBN 0316741116; Novi Eboraci: Routledge, 1999 ISBN 0415923735 )
  • Schaefer, John (1987), New Sounds: A Listener's Guide to New Music, Novi Eboraci: Harper Collins, ISBN 0060970812
       
  • Shanken, Edward A. (2009), Art and Electronic Media, Londinii: Phaidon, ISBN 9780714847825
       
  • Shapiro, Peter, ed. (2000), Modulations: a History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound, Novi Eboraci: Caipirinha Productions, ISBN 189102406X
       
  • Sicko, Dan (1999), Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk, Novi Eboraci: Billboard Books, ISBN 0823084280
       
  • Wells, Thomas (1981), The Technique of Electronic Music, Novi Eboraci Schirmer Books; Londinii: Collier Macmillan, ISBN 978-0028728308
       

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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