Gulielmus Dean Howells

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Gulielmus Dean Howells, ab Underwood & Underwood facta.

Gulielmus Dean Howells (natus William Dean Howells, Martins Ferry Ohii 1 Martii 1837; Manhatae 11 Maii 1920) fuit scriptor, iudex litterarius, et scriptor ludorum scaenicorum Americanus. Per ludibrium appellatus decanus[1] litterarum Americanarum, praesertim innotuit opere editor magazinae Atlantic Monthly scriptisque fecundis, inter quae "Christmas Every Day," fabula Christi Natalis, ac The Rise of Silas Lapham ('Ascensus Silas Lapham') et A Traveler from Altruria ('Viator ex Altruria'), mythistoriae realisticae.

Vita[recensere | fontem recensere]

Ortus et familia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Gulielmus Dean Howells natus est in vico Martins Ferry (tunc Martinsville appellato) in Belmont Comitatu Ohii die 1 Martii 1837, filius Gulielmi Cooper Howells et Maria Mary Dean Howells uxoris.[2] Fuit secundus ex octo liberis. Pater fuit editor et diariorum typographus, qui migrare circum Ohium solebat. Anno 1840, familia in Hamilton Ohii consedit,[3] ubi pater diario Factionis Whig praefuit et Swedenborgianismum adsecutus est[4]; hoc tempus fuit diuturnum quo familia uno loco manebant.[3] Quamquam familia sibi frugaliter uti debebat, parentes litterarias iuvenis spes confirmavit.[5] Howells patrem ad typotheticam attinens adiuvare coepit, opus imprimendi aduluscentulus, opusculum diabolus typographi tum appellatum. Anno 1852, pater unum ex poematibus Gulielmi in Ohio State Journal protulit, hac re puero priusquam non cognita.

Cursus primus[recensere | fontem recensere]

Gulielmus Dean Howell anno 1856 clericus in Curia Legatorum Ohiensis electus est. Anno 1858, pro Ohio State Journal laborare coepit, ubi poemata fabulasque breves scripsit, commentariosque ex linguis Francica, Hispanica, Theodisca convertit. Linguae Theodiscae aliisque linguis avide studuit, et Henricus Heine eum maxime tenuit. Anno 1860, Bostoniam visitavit et in alios scriptores Americanos incidit: Iacobum Fields, Iacobum Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes (pater), Nathanielem Hawthorne, Henricum David Thoreau, et Radulphum Waldo Emerson; amicus multorum deinde factus est, inter quos etiam Henricus Adams, Oliver Wendell Holmes (filius), et fratres Gulielmus et Henricus James.[6]

Traditur Howells, propter publicam Abrahami Lincoln biographiam ad comitia praesidentialia anni 1860 adhibitam,[7] munus consulis Americani Venetiolae accepisse. Vespere Sancto 1862, in Legatione Civitatum Foederatarum Lutetiae, Alienoram Mead duxit, sororem sculptoris Larkin Goldsmith Mead et architecti Gulielmi Rutherford Mead, ille Mead societatis McKim, Mead, et White. Inter eorum liberos fuit Ioannes Mead Howells, architectus futurus.

Editor et aliae res litterariae[recensere | fontem recensere]

Gulielmus Dean Howells anno 1866.
Gulielmus Dean Howells, circa 1870.
Domus Gulielmi Dean Howells Cantabrigiae Massachusettae, ab Alienora Mead Howells uxore designata. Hic habitavit familia Howells ab anno 1873 ad 1878.

Howells, Americam anno 1865 rediens et Cantabrigiae Massachusettae considens, pro variis periodicis scripsit, inter quae Atlantic Monthly et Harper's Magazine. Ianuario 1866, Iacobus Fields honorem editoris adiutoris magazinae Atlantic Monthly ei obtulit, quem Howells suscepit postquam maius salarium prospere petivit; eum autem intima cura Fieldiana frustrari solebat.[8] Quinque annos post, anno 1871, Howells editor ipse creatus est, et hoc opus decennio sustinuit. Anno 1869 in Samuelem Clementem primum inciderat, cum amicitia diuturna coeperet. Sed maioris momenti in progressu eius modi litterarii—eius studium realismi—fuit societas cum diurnario Ionathan Baxter Harrison, qui circa 1875 seriem commentariorum pro Atlantic Monthly de vitis Americanorum mediocrium scripsit (Fryckstedt 1958). Howells duodecim acroases de "Italian Poets of Our Century" ('poetis Italicis nostri saeculi') pro Instituto Lowelliano annis ab 1870 ad 1871 habuit.[9]

Their Wedding Journey, suam primam mythistoriam, anno 1872 ediderat, sed sua fama litteraria cum A Modern Instance (1882) in sublime ferebatur, mythistoria realistica quae matrimonium tabescens describit. Mythistoria The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) suus liber notissimus factus est, ortum et lapsum Americani negotiatoris pigmenta venumdantis describens. Suae sententiae sociales in mythistoriis Annie Kilburn (1888), A Hazard of New Fortunes (1890), et An Imperative Duty (1891) exprimuntur. Howells praesertim iniuria adfectus est ob iudicia quae Rem Haymarket consequebantur et desiderium ei iniecerunt tumultum similem in A Hazard of New Fortunes depingere; scripsit praeterea propalam ut contra diceret iudicia diceret hominum qui, ut multi opinabantur, in Re Haymarket implicabantur. In scriptis publicis et mythistoriis, urgentis suae aetatis res sociales indicare solebat. Se cum Foedere Contra Imperialism anno 1898 consociavit, adiectionem Philippinarum a Civitatibus Foederatis contra dicens.

Sua poemata annis 1873 et 1886 collecta sunt, et volumen Stops of Various Quills anno 1895 prolatum est. Scholam initiavit realistarum Americanorum qui a Balzac per scriptores Russicos deducti erant et alia fictionis genera haud approbavit, quamquam animos confirmare solebat novorum scriptorum, sicut Stephanus Crane, Beniaminus Franklinius Norris, Hamlin Garland, Haroldus Frederic, Abraham Cahan, Sara Orne Jewett, et Paulus Laurentius Dunbar, in quibus integras notiones vel novas fictionis rationes invenit.

Anni ultimi[recensere | fontem recensere]

Howells anno 1902, The Flight of Pony Baker edidit, librum pueris destinatum, partim a sua pueritia motum.[10] Eodem anno, domum aestivum emit, Piscataqua Flumen in vico Kittery Point Cenomannicae prospicientem.[11] Quo usque ad mortem quotannis rediit, duo decennia post, cum filius rem familiarem pro monumento Universitati Harvardianae donavit.[12] Anno 1904, unus fuit ex primis septem hominibus sodalibus in Academia Artium et Litterarum Americana electis, cuius praeses statim creatus est.

Alienora uxor Februario 1910 morphino uti coepit ad curandam eius neuritem ingravescentem.[13] Mortua est die 6 Maii, paucos dies post suum diem natalem, solumque duo spatia septem dierum post mortem Samuelis Clementis, amici Howellsiani. Henricus James litteras consolatorias misit, scribens "Huius lacerationis vitae tuae animo voluto, omnia quae tua refert infinite sentiens."[14][15] Howells et filia Mildred partem anni degere instituerunt domi Cantabrigiae in Via Concord, quamquam, Alienora nunc absente, "terribilis per speciem luridam et foedam" eis videbatur.[16][17]

Howells ipse aliquantulum post mediam noctem diei 11 Maii 1920, dormiens mortuus est[18] et Cantabrigiae sepultus est.[19] Filia octo annos post eius epistulas protulit pro biographia eius vitae litterariae.

Ratio litteraria[recensere | fontem recensere]

Howells, praeter sua opera creativa, ludicia litteraria et commentarios de ducibus litterariis aequaevis sicut Henricus Ibsen, Benitus Pérez Galdós, Ioannes Verga, Aemilius Zola, et praecipue Leo Tolstoj scripsit, conatus qui eorum famam in Civitatibus Foederatis constituere adiuvit. Certos scriptores Americanos quoque laudavit, inter quos Abraham Cahan, Madison Cawein, Carolus Waddell Chesnutt, Stephanus Crane, Aemilia Dickinson, Paulus Laurentius Dunbar, Maria Alienora Wilkins Freeman, Hamlin Garland, Sara Orne Jewett, et Beniaminus Franklinius Norris. Fortasse per has partes actas maxime apud alios valebat. In columna "Editor's Study"[20] in Atlantic Monthly et deinde in Harper's Magazine, suas rationes realismi in litteris formavit et disseminavit.

Howells realismum habuit "nihil plus nihilque minus quam verax materiae tractatio."[21][22] Realitatem contra eximiam speciem defendens, scripsit:

Spero tempus venturum esse cum non solum artifex, sed vir vulgaris et mediocris, qui semper "normam artium in sua potestate habet," bono animo sit ut eam adhibeat, et grillum perfectum reiciat ubicumque eam inveniat, in scientia, in litteris, in arte, quia "sincerus, naturalis, probus" non est, quia grilli veri dissimilis est. Sed concedo me putare tempus iam procul abesse, et homines qui per grillum perfectum alti sunt, grillum heroicum, grillum vehementem, grillum sibi deditum, audacem, amabilem, romanticum chartae crassioris, moriendos esse antequam grillus sincerus, probus, nativus aream aequam habere potest.[23][24]

Howells credidit posterum scripturae Americanae tempus non in poematibus, sed in mythistoriis esse, in genere quod vidit a romanticismo ad graviora argumenta mutari.[25]

Howells fuit socialista Christianus, cuius sententiae a Leone Tolstoj, scriptore Russico, impulsae sunt.[26] Se cum grege socialistico Christiano Bostoniae inter 1889 et 1891 coniunxit,[27] nonnullasque ecclesias frequentare solebat, inter quas Primum Templum Spirituale et Ecclesia Fabri Tignarii, hac in Ecclesia Episcopali et Societate Socialistarum Christianorum cooptata.[28] Sic motus, scribere solebat de iustitia sociali ex cosmotheoria morali et aequalitarianistia, reprehensor effectuum socialium capitalismi industrialis.[29][30][31] Marxista autem non fuit.[32]

Acceptio[recensere | fontem recensere]

Gulielmus Dean Howells anno 1887.
Gulielmus Dean Howells anno 1906, a Van der Weyde photographatus.
Sepulcrum Gulielmi Dean Howells, in Coemeterio Cantabrigiae.

Henricus James, documentariam veracemque operis Howellsiani dignitatem animadvertens, ei scripsit: "Ictus per ictum et liber per librum, tuum opus fieri erat, ob hanc exquisitam omnis nostrorum lucis et umbrae et retro et prorsum notationem, summo gradu documentarium."[33][34]

Opera[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Venetian Life (1866)
  • Italian Journeys (1867)
  • Suburban Sketches (1871)
  • Their Wedding Journey (1872)
  • The Parlor Car (1876)
  • A Counterfeit Presentment (1877)
  • The Lady of The Aroostook (1879)

Libri sequentes scripti sunt cum in Anglia et Italia commoraretur.

  • The Undiscovered Country (1880)
  • A Fearful Responsibility (1881)
  • Dr. Breen's Practice (1881)
  • The Sleeping Car (1882)
  • A Modern Instance (1882)
  • A Woman's Reason (1883)
  • Three Villages (1884)
  • Tuscan Cities (1885)
  • The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885)

Ad Civitates Foederatas anno 1886 rediit. Scripsit varia operum genera, inter quae fictio, poesis, et mimi quorum The Sleeping Car, The Mouse-Trap, The Elevator; Christmas Every Day; et Out of the Question sunt propria.

  • Indian Summer (1886)
  • The Minister's Charge (1886)
  • Annie Kilburn (1887/88)
  • Modern Italian Poets (1887)
  • April Hopes (1888)
  • Mark Twain's Library of Humor, cum Samuele Clemens (1888)
  • A Hazard of New Fortunes (1889)
  • The Shadow of a Dream (1890)
  • Criticism and Fiction (1891)
  • Christmas Every Day, fabula brevis (1892)
  • The Quality of Mercy (1892)
  • An Imperative Duty (1892)
  • The Coast of Bohemia (1893)
  • My Year In a Log Cabin (1893)
  • A Traveler from Altruria (1894)
  • Stops of Various Quills (1895)
  • The Landlord at Lion's Head (1897)
  • The Story of a Play (1898)
  • Ragged Lady (1899)
  • Their Silver Wedding Anniversary (1899)
  • The Flight of Pony Baker (1902)
  • The Kentons (1902)
  • Questionable Shapes (1903)
  • Son of Royal Langbrith (1904)
  • Editha (1905)
  • London Films (1905)
  • Certain Delightful English Towns (1906)
  • Between the Dark and the Daylight (1907)
  • Through the Eye of the Needle (1907)
  • Heroines of Fiction (1908)
  • The Landlord At Lion's Head (1908)
  • My Mark Twain: Reminiscences (1910)
  • New Leaf Mills (1913)
  • Seen and Unseen at Stratford-upon-Avon: A Fantasy (1914)
  • The Leatherwood God (1916)
  • Years of My Youth, autobiographia (1916)

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. Dean, nomen Anglicum, eundem ac decanum significat.
  2. Lynn, 35
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lynn 1970:36.
  4. Olsen 1991:33–34.
  5. Olsen 1991:36.
  6. Harriet Elinor Smith, ed., The Autobiography of Mark Twain (University of California Press, 2010), 1:475.
  7. William Dean Howells et Ioannes L. Hayes, The Lives and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin (Columbi Ohii: Follett, Foster and Co., 1860).
  8. Goodman et Dawson 2005:107–108
  9. Harriet Knight Smith, The History of the Lowell Institute, Boston: Lamson, Wolffe and Co., 1898.
  10. Olsen, 5
  11. William Dean Howells at Kittery
  12. William Dean Howells Memorial House, Kittery Point, Maine
  13. Goodman et Dawson 2005:401.
  14. Anglice: "I think of this laceration of your life with an infinite sense of all it will mean for you."
  15. Lynn, 322
  16. Anglice: "dreadful in its ghostliness and ghastliness."
  17. Goodman et Dawson 2005:402.
  18. Goodman et Dawson, 432.
  19. http://www.cambridgema.gov/theworks/ourservices/cambridgecemetery.aspx
  20. Locutio verborum lusus videtur, quia studium, vocabulum Anglicum ambo studia et tablinum significat.
  21. Anglice: "nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material."
  22. Crow 2003.
  23. Anglice: "I hope the time is coming when not only the artist, but the common, average man, who always 'has the standard of the arts in his power,' will have also the courage to apply it, and will reject the ideal grasshopper wherever he finds it, in science, in literature, in art, because it is not 'simple, natural, and honest,' because it is not like a real grasshopper. But I will own that I think the time is yet far off, and that the people who have been brought up on the ideal grasshopper, the heroic grasshopper, the impassioned grasshopper, the self-devoted, adventureful, good old romantic card-board grasshopper, must die out before the simple, honest, and natural grasshopper can have a fair field."
  24. Criticism and Fiction," by William Dean Howells.
  25. Ruland et Bradbury 1991:203–204.
  26. Ensign et Patsouras 1993:19.
  27. Sacvan Bercovitch et Cyrus R. K. Patell, The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 3, Prose Writing, 1860-1920 (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 736.
  28. Goodman and Dawson, 308
  29. Cynthia J. Dabis et Denise D. Knight, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Her Contemporaries: Literary and Intellectual Contexts (University of Alabama Press, 2004), 21.
  30. Arthur Stanley Link et William A. Link, The Twentieth Century: An American History (Harlan Davidson, 1983), 17.
  31. Jerry R. Baydo Zimmerman, History of the U. S. with Topics (Gregory Publishing Company, 1994), 137.
  32. Goodman et Dawson 2005:120.
  33. Anglice: "Stroke by stroke and book by book your work was to become, for this exquisite notation of our whole democratic light and shade and give and take, in the highest degree documentary."
  34. Henry James, The letters of Henry James, ed. Percy Lubbock (Novi Eboraci: Scribner, 1920), 233.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Bleiler, Everett. 1948. The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Sicagi: Shasta Publishers.
  • Crow, Charles L. 2003. A Companion to the Regional Literatures of America. Malden Massachusettae: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0631226311.
  • Ensign, Russell L., et Louis Patsouras. 1993. Challenging Social Injustice: Essays on Socialism and the Devaluation of the Human Spirit. Edwin Mellen Press.
  • Fryckstedt, Olov W. 1958. In Quest of America: A Study of Howells' Early Development as a Novelist. Upsalae: thesis.
  • Goodman, Susan, et Carl Dawson. 2005. William Dean Howells: A Writer's Life. Berkeleiae: University of California Press. ISBN 0520238966.
  • Halfmann, Ulrich, et William Dean Howells. 1973. Interviews with William Dean Howells. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910 6(4):274–275, 277–279, 281–399, 401–416. In JSTOR.
  • Halfmann, Ulrich, et Don R. Smith. 1972. William Dean Howells: A Revised and Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Comment in Periodicals and Newspapers, 1868–1919. American Literary Realism, 1870–1910, 5(2):91–121. In JSTOR.
  • Lynn, Kenneth S. 1970. William Dean Howells: An American Life. Novi Eboraci: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151421773.
  • Olsen, Rodney. 1991. Dancing in Chains: The Youth of William Dean Howells. Novi Eboraci: New York University Press. ISBN 0814761720.
  • Radavich, David. 2004. "Twain, Howells, and the Origins of Midwestern Drama." MidAmerica 31:25–42.
  • Ruland, Richard, et Malcolm Bradbury. 1991. From Puritanism to Postmodernism: A History of American Literature. Novi Eboraci: Viking. ISBN 0670835927.
  • Witschi, N. S. 2002. Traces of Gold: California's Natural Resources and the Claim to Realism in Western American Literature. Tuscaloosae Alabamae: University of Alabama Press.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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