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Apartheid

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Tabula conlocationes bantustaniarum in Africa Australia ostendit.

Apartheid (Lingua Africana, 'seiunctio, separatio, segregatio'), vel Latinitate tenue segregátio nigritarum,[1] fuit legitimum segregationis phyleticae systema quod inter annos 1948 et 1994 a gubernatione Factionis Nationalis in Africa Australi confirmatum est, quo iura plurimorum Africae Australis "non-alborum" habitatorum coartabantur et dominatio partis minoris (Anglice: minority rule) ab hominibus albis effecta sustinebatur.

Segregatio phyletica in Africa Australi tempore coloniae coepit, sed gubernatio apartheid ut propositum publicum post generalia anni 1948 comitia introduxit. Novae leges habitatores in greges phyleticos (Nigros, Albos, Coloratos, Indicos) digessebant,[2] et regiones habitatorum segregabant, aliquando amandationibus coercitibus. Ab anno 1958, gubernatio homines nigros civitate (Anglice: citizenship) privabat, ut legitime fierent cives cuiusvis ex decem tribuariis patriis sui iuris, appellatis bantustaniis, quarum quattuor de iure factae sunt reipublicae liberae. Gubernatio educationem, curationem medicam, et alia officia publica segregabat, et hominibus nigris officia concedebat inferiora quam officia hominibus albis concessa.[3]

Homines omnium gregum phyleticorum in Africa Australi apartheid et eius violentiam insigniter resistebant, atque aliae reipublicae repudiationem commercii (Anglice: trade embargo) in Africam Australem diu imponebant.[4] Seriei seditionum popularium, gubernatio respondit interdictionem oppositionis custodiamque ducum qui apartheid repugnabant. Dum defectiones se augebant et violentiores factae sunt, organa civitatis oppressionem libertatis legitimamque saevitiam amplificabant.

Oppositione ad apartheid abs correctionibus decennio 198 non sedata, anno 1990 F. W. de Klerk Praeses cum factionibus adversis conloqui coepit; quo facto, multiphyletica comitia democratica anni 1994 victa sunt abs Congressu Nationali Africano, Nelson Mandela duce. Vestigia aetatis apartheid civiles rationes et societatem Africae Australis iam formant.[5]

Praecursores apartheid[recensere | fontem recensere]

Signum aetatis apartheid.
Signum aetatis apartheid in Litore Durban linguis Anglica, Africana, et Zulu (1991)

Britannici coloniarum Capensis? Natalensisque rectores, ut motum hominum nigrorum ordinarent a regionibus tribuariis ad regiones ab albis et coloratis constitutis, systema legum transitoriarum (Anglice: pass laws) saeculo undevicensimo introduxerunt.[6][7][8] Rectores leges sanxerunt quae non solum motum hominum nigrorum in has regiones coercebant, sed etiam eorum motum ab una regione ad alia sine syngrapho (facultate eundi data) interdicebant. Nigris nocte non licet proficisci in viis urbium in Capensi Natalensique coloniis, et eis opus erat sua syngrapha omnibus temporibus portare.[9]

Vide etiam[recensere | fontem recensere]

Notae[recensere | fontem recensere]

  1. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/institutions_connected/latinitas/documents/rc_latinitas_20040601_lexicon_it.html Lexicon Curiae Romanae.
  2. Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel; London, Lesley; du Gruchy, Jeanelle, An ambulance of the wrong colour: health professionals, human rights and ethics in South Africa (Juta and Company Limited, 1999), p. 18.
  3. "The economic legacy of apartheid". Centre de recherches pour le développement international 
  4. Lodge, Tom (1983). Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945. Longman .
  5. "De Klerk dismantles apartheid in South Africa". BBC News. 2 February 1990 
  6. "Africans and Industrialization". US Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress .
  7. Jim Jones (2002). "HIS 311 Lecture on Southern Africa 1800–1875". West Chester University of Pennsylvania .
  8. Jessica Smith. "Pass Laws". Charlotte Country Day School .
  9. Josiah Gilbert Holland et Richard Watson Gilder, The Century (The Century Co., 1896) 52.

Bibliographia[recensere | fontem recensere]

Regio rustica in Ciskei, una ex patriis (Anglice: homelands) aetate apartheid in Africa Australi

Generalia[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Beinart, William, et Saul Dubow, eds. 1995. Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth-Century South-Africa. Londini: Routledge.
  • Bennett, T. W. Bennet.1996. "African Land: A History of Dispossession." In Southern Cross: Civil Law and Common Law in South Africa, ed. Reinhard Zimmermann et Daniel Visser. Oxoniae, Novi Eboraci: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826087-3.
  • Bernstein, Hilda. 1985. For their Triumphs and for their Tears: Women in Apartheid South Africa. International Defense and Aid Fund for Southern Africa. Londini.
  • Bischof, Michael H., et al. 2006. Südafrika im Spiegel der Schweizer Botschaft: Die politische Berichterstattung der Schweizer Botschaft in Südafrika während der Apartheidära 1952–1990. Chronos. ISBN 3-0340-0756-6.
  • Davenport, T. R. H. 1977. South Africa. A Modern History. MacMillan.
  • Davied, Rob, Dan O'Meara, et Sipho Dlamini. 1984. The Struggle For South Africa: A reference guide to movements, organizations and institution. Vol. 2. Londini: Zed Books.
  • Du Pre, R. H. 1994. Separate but Unequal—The 'Coloured' People of South Africa—A Political History. Jonathan Ball.
  • de Klerk, Frederik Willem.1991. Eine Hoffnung für Südafrika. Herford: Verlag Busse Seewald. ISBN 3-512-03072-6.
  • De Klerk, Frederik Willem. 1998. The Last Trek: A New Beginning. Novi Eboraci: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22310-2.
  • Eiselen, W. W. N. 1948. "The Meaning of Apartheid," Race Relations 15(3).
  • Federal Research Division. 1996. South Africa—a country study. Library of Congress.
  • Giliomee, Herman. 2003. The Afrikaners. Hurst & Co.
  • Hexham, Irving. 1981. The Irony of Apartheid: The Struggle for National Independence of Afrikaner Calvinism against British Imperialism. Edwin Mellen.
  • Klimm, Ernst, Karl-Günther Schneider, et Bernd Weise. 1980. Das südliche Afrika. Wissenschaftliche Länderkunden, 17. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft. ISBN 3-534-04132-1.
  • Lapchick, Richard, et Stephanie Urdang. 1982. Oppression and Resistance. The Struggle of Women in Southern Africa. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
  • Louw, P. Eric. 2004. The Rise, Fall and Legacy of Apartheid. Praeger.
  • Mandela, Nelson. Der lange Weg zur Freiheit. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer-Verlag. ISBN 3-10-047404-X.
  • Meredith, Martin. 1988. In the name of apartheid: South Africa in the postwar period. Ed 1a CFA. Novi Eboraci: Harper & Row.
  • Meredith, Martin. 2005. The State of Africa. The Free Press.
  • Newbury, Darren. 2009. Defiant Images: Photography and Apartheid South Africa. [University of South Africa (UNISA) Press.
  • O'Meara, Dan. 1996. Forty Lost Years : The National Party and the Politics of the South African State, 1948–1994. Athenis: Ohio University Press.
  • Terreblanche, S. 2003. A History of Inequality in South Africa, 1652–2002. University of Natal Press.
  • Visser, Pippa. 2003. In search of history. Oxford University Press Southern Africa.
  • Williams, Michael. 1994. Crocodile Burning.

Studia biographica[recensere | fontem recensere]

  • Brinkmann,Lurtz. 2004. Sandown: weiße Kindheit im Apartheidsstaat. Dunkelblau Verlag. ISBN 3-981-00070-6.
  • Mathabane, Mark. 1986. Kaffern Boy: Ein Leben in der Apartheid. Ehrenwirth Verlag. ISBN 3-431-02915-9. (Anglice: Kaffir Boy).
  • Mathabane, Miriam. 2000. Mein Herz blieb in Afrika: Der Schicksalsweg einer jungen Frau vom Township in die Freiheit. List. ISBN 978-3471794289.
  • Weiss, Ruth. 2004. Meine Schwester Sara. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag ISBN 3-423-62169-9.

Nexus externi[recensere | fontem recensere]

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